**TOPS Learning Modules**

Now you can order the superb TOPS Learning Modules without the hassle of
importing them from the U.S.! * Science Is...* is a Canadian distributor of the
TOPS series of science and math lessons, and our prices are (of course) in Canadian
dollars!

Hands-on science with simple things. TOPS Learning Modules are a
tremendous boon for teachers, home-schoolers and youth group leaders who may be stretched
for funds to buy hands-on science resources. The TOPS books were developed by Ron Marsen,
who spent 3 years as a Peace Corps volunteer teaching science and math in Africa *with
no science equipment*. (And you think __your__ school board is pressed for funding!)
Having to make do with limited resources, he taught science and math using mostly kitchen
utensils and office supplies. Simple, easily-found materials like paper clips, thread,
clothes pins, masking tape, aluminum foil, straws, pins, etc. were transformed into tools
for real science and math lessons. Some of the TOPS modules need a minimum amount of
"real" equipment, but you may already have an inexpensive thermometer, magnet or
magnifying lens readily available in your classroom or home. If not, * Science Is...*
would be happy to supply them. All TOPS Modules are soft cover books, 8 ½" X
11".

The hands-on activities are arranged so that the instructor basically sets
out the materials, distributes the activity cards or sheets, and instructs the students to
read the activity and proceed. The activities are quite logically laid out, so as long as
the students are willing to __ read the instructions__ (a very useful life
skill), they should be able to carry on with a minimum of supervision. The first
activities in each book are fairly easy, and the students build on their acquired
knowledge step by step.

The main difference between SET "A" and SET "B" books
is that activities in SET "A" are presented as 4" X 6" index card size
units, with more open-ended activities encouraging independent study. The SET
"B" activities are full page size, with more structure to the activity (i.e. a
definite beginning, middle & end). Humorously illustrated with TOPS
"peoplets" showing the way, the activities will appeal to those students who *don’t
like science*. All TOPS Student Worksheets can be reproduced for classroom use.

The "Teaching Notes" section of each book contains a reproduction of each task card or sheet that the student received, with all the answers/diagrams filled in, background science you need to know, common questions students might ask, extension activities for enrichment, evaluation questions/answers and a materials list for that particular activity. A master materials list at the beginning of each book will assist you in gathering all the materials you need to complete the entire book. Homeschoolers find these TOPS modules particularly appealing, as they use easily-found materials and allow an individualized approach to the subjects that allow students to proceed at their own pace.

** **

**TOPS Modules SET "A":**

(suitable __mostly__ for middle school to high school)

Modules #01 to #23 use open-ended task cards. *Note: Grade levels indicated are provided *as
guides or suggestions only*. Your students may find the activities easier or harder,
depending on their previous experience.

**TOPS Module #01 - Pendulums**

A washer swings on a thread, sweeping the face of a cereal box. This box is covered with a
grid that measures length and amplitude. It is, in short, a classically simple TOPS
learning system. Armed with a stopwatch and calculator, your students will graph length
vs. frequency into a beautiful curve; they’ll stand this curve on its head by
plotting the period, then straighten it back out by squaring the period. This straight
line leads directly to a simple pendulum equation with powerful applications. Reinforce
all this great learning with other simple things that oscillate, from bouncing springs to
chains of paper clips. Math lab teachers, don’t miss this one! Book of 20 lessons for
grades 8 to 12*.

**TOPS.01** Pendulums **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #02 - Measuring Length**

Your students will discover that measuring length in centimetres is no different than
using thumb widths or paper clips. Centimetres are just easier to use, are the same all
over the world, and conveniently converted by multiples of 10 into other metric forms. *Measuring
Length* teaches students to stretch a ruler to its limit of accuracy, to estimate the
last digit and to report plus/minus uncertainty. Every lesson is high interest and
hands-on. Your students will estimate the height of tall buildings and reinvent the
measuring wheel. They’ll improvise metre tapes, then design nut-and-bolt Vernier
calipers than are 100 times more accurate. Book of 16 lessons for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.02** Measuring Length **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #03 - Graphing**

In this unit, your students will measure variables, generate data tables and plot graphs.
As they continue to experiment, they will begin to understand how the slope of a straight
line or the direction of a curve corresponds to a more concrete reality - the stretch of a
rubber band or the curve of a flask. Your students will study unusual co-ordinate systems
as well, that will amaze and delight them. They’ll map normal images onto a circular
graph paper to create a distorted projection. Then they’ll reflect the projection
with a piece of shiny chrome tubing (or aluminized mylar - available from * Science
Is...*), and find the normal image restored. Book of 20 lessons for grades 6 to
10*.

**TOPS Module #04 - Balancing**

Press the *sid*e of your foot against the wall. Can you balance on that foot alone?
No way: the wall prevents you from shifting your centre of gravity inside your base of
support. Can you balance an index card on the point of a pin? It’s easy: curve the
card so the pin point remains *above* the card’s centre of gravity. To practice
balancing is to understand the *science* of balancing. To move pennies along the
length of a metre stick that pivots this way and that is to discover the *mathematics*
of balancing. To construct mobiles and cantilevers is to apply concepts of balancing to *art*
and *engineering*. Have you been wanting to try a multidisciplinary approach? Try *Balancing*.
Book of 16 lessons for grades 6 to 11*.

**TOPS.04** Balancing **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #05 - Weighing**

Using metal cans and cardboard beams, your students will construct lab balances accurate
to 0.01 grams. That’s good enough to support *all* TOPS activities requiring
mass measure throughout your entire school year! The physics of balances - trueness,
sensitivity, reproducibility and restoring forces - are easy to understand on instruments
that students have built themselves. Early experiments use a paper clip mass standard.
Later on, your class will develop a gram standard derived from a 10 mL water mass.
Finally, they’ll construct rubber band spring balances that measure weight in
Newtons, providing the conceptual framework for distinguishing mass from weight. Book of
20 lessons for grades 5 to 10*.

**TOPS.05** Weighing **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #06 - Metric Measure**

This book is a perfect sequel to *Measuring Length*. It continues with the study of
area, volume and mass and the metric units that measure these quantities. Your students
will investigate metric relationships by building metric models and fitting them together.
On an improvised microbalance they’ll discover that their cubic centimetre model
holds 1 mL of water and has a mass of 1 gram. They’ll extend this idea a thousand
fold by balancing a litre of water opposite a kilogram of gravel on a metre stick.
They’ll estimate the number of rice grains that fill a baby food jar and the volume
of water wasted by a dripping faucet. It’s all so simple, so elegant, so TOPS. Book
of 20 lessons for grades 8 to 12*.

**TOPS.06** Metric Measure **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #07 - Math Lab**

The easiest way to wrap your mind around a math concept is to first wrap your hands around
it. In *Math Lab* your students will do just that: they’ll build number
sequences with pennies, create works of art based on the Fibonacci sequence, draw ellipses
guided by thread and pins, outline parabolas with folded notebook paper, trace
heart-shaped cardioids with drinking cups and explore the one-sided topography of Mobius
strips - all hands-on. Your students will crack bar codes, solve puzzles and learn to
generalize in a cautious, responsible manner. From limits to logarithms, Math Lab builds
math confidence while teaching math skills in a totally enjoyable way. Book of 20 lessons
for grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.07** Math Lab **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #08 - Probability**

This book is just what you need to involve your class in the mathematics of chance and the
science of analysis. Your students will flip a coin in a marathon basketball tournament:
Is Heads or Tails really the better team? They’ll spin an alphabet wheel until they
spell a three-letter word: if you spelled "cat" the first time, are you as
likely to spell it again? They’ll turn a cereal box into a penny pinball machine
based on Pascal’s Triangle: what is the probability of hitting each pin? Your
students will count permutations, tally combinations and plot frequency distributions;
apply the rules of "and" "or" and "not" to paper clip
spinners; even toss a pi without creating a mess! Book of 28 lessons, gr. 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.08** Probability **$21.95**

**TOPS Module #09 - Floating & Sinking**

Baby oil floats on rubbing alcohol, which then floats on corn oil, which then floats on
water. Why do they float in that order? A candle sinks through these layers until it
floats on corn oil. Why won’t it sink further? Your students will discover the
physics behind these phenomena by measuring mass, displacing volumes and calculating
densities. They’ll measure weight and buoyancy on spring balances they build
themselves. In time they’ll experience, like Archimedes, that flash of understanding:
Eureka! Floaters float and sinkers sink because they both are buoyed up by a force equal
to the weight of the water they displace. Book of 24 lessons for grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.09** Floating & Sinking **$19.95**

**TOPS Module #10 - Analysis**

This book is an excellent introduction to simple chemical analysis, especially for
students who have had no previous background in chemistry. Your students will
quantitatively separate salt and sand mixtures by following simple flowchart procedures.
They’ll observe common household substances interacting, then use these
characteristic reactions to qualitatively analyze unknown substances. They’ll
investigate acids and bases, both with traditional litmus paper and cabbage water. By
titrating with an eye dropper, your students will compare the strengths of common kitchen
substances, and match colour changes to estimate pH. Book of 16 lessons for grades 5 to
10*.

**TOPS.10** Analysis **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #11 - Oxidation**

How is a burning candle like a breathing person? Both use fuel to produce heat; both
consume oxygen; both produce carbon dioxide and water vapour. *Oxidation* enables
your students to discover underlying chemical unity among physical phenomena that appear
quite different - between things that burn, things that breathe - and things that rust.
They’ll balance chemical equations, determine by experiment the percentage of oxygen
in room air, even burn iron. Do your students need a chemistry lab to perform wonderful
experiments like these? Not with TOPS. Beyond test tubes, everything runs on common
household items and kitchen chemicals. Book of 16 lessons for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.11** Oxidation **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #12 - Solutions**

This unit begins with corn starch. Mixed cold, it forms a coarse suspension that clears by
filtering or settling. When boiled it forms both a cloudy colloidal suspension and true
clear solution. Concepts and vocabulary learned here are then applied to a series of tasks
that clean muddy water. Alum coagulates the clay, chlorination bleaches all traces of food
colouring, but only distillation makes it pure. Students then use rock salt, baking soda,
Epsom salt and copper sulfate to study about crystals, concentration and saturation, plus
variables that influence rates of dissolving and limits of solubility. Book of 28 lessons
for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.12** Solutions **$21.95**

**TOPS Module #13 - Cohesion/Adhesion**

Begin with soapy water, fresh water, corn oil and rubbing alcohol. The way these simple
liquids heap together, roll down wax paper, creep up glass and soak through paper towels
says much about cohesion, adhesion, surface tension and capillary action. To understand
the origin of these forces, your students will assemble a paper model cleverly mimicking
the behaviour of hydrogen bonds that hold water together. They’ll extend these ideas
to explain how colours separate by ink spot chromatography; to understand why oil slicks
disperse on water with the addition of soap; to account for the elegant geometry of soap
films coloured by glorious interference patterns. Book of 24 lessons for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.13** Cohesion/Adhesion **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #14 - Kinetic Model**

How do scientists know what they know? This unit is all about gathering evidence to
determine the nature of things we can’t see. Students begin by making inferences
about the contents of sealed milk cartons and model what’s inside. They apply these
reasoning skills to investigate the nature of solids, liquids and gases. Your class will
learn to view their world as a collection of atoms and molecules in constant thermal
motion. Not because they are told this is so. Rather, a wide variety of phenomena -
diffusion, expansion, contraction, evaporation, condensation, melting, freezing and
boiling all suggest that this is the best predictive model. Book of 24 lessons for grades
7 to 12*.

**TOPS.14** Kinetic Model **$20.95**

**TOPS Module #15 - Heat
**Your students will study heat in all its forms: how it conducts through metals and
nonmetals; how it convects through water and air; how it radiates through space. Test
tubes of water wrapped in shiny foil or dull black paper lead students to conclusions
about heat absorbers and emitters; cooling curves reveal the best insulator and the best
conductor; a jar of moist sand demonstrates the greenhouse effect. Whether heat is
supplied by their own hands or a burning peanut, your students will discover that mass and
temperature both count when computing calories. Book of 20 lessons for grades 8 to 12*.

**TOPS Module #16 - Pressure**

Teaching about pressure is usually a matter of locating the right rubber stopper, with the
correct number of holes, to fit a flask of the proper diameter, to accommodate glass
tubing cut to the desired length. No wonder experiments on pressure usually end up as
teacher demonstrations! This unit eliminates all the hassle and hazard by using canning
jars, rings and lids: 1/4 inch diameter rubber tubes fit perfectly through 1/4 inch lid
holes backed by 1/4 inch washers. Your students will construct all manner of airtight and
watertight systems that measure pressure, expand balloons, pump, siphon and more, simply
by interconnecting and reconnecting tubes and jars. Book of 32 lessons for grades 7 - 12*.

**TOPS.16** Pressure **$24.95**

**TOPS Module #17 - Light**

Light is magic unless you can see through the illusions. If you understand its particle
and wave nature - how it reflects off mirrors and refracts through water, how it magnifies
and shrinks whole worlds through lenses and pinholes and turns them upside down, how it
adds and subtracts colour and splits itself into rainbows, then, better than magic, light
becomes a predictable, trusted friend. Traditional lab equipment - optical benches, ray
tables, prisms, curved lenses and mirrors - normally cost big bucks. But *Light*
achieves even better results using little more than 2 ordinary hand lenses. Throw in an
extra penny-sized lens and your students will even build microscopes & telescopes!
Book of 36 lessons, grades 6 to 11*.

**TOPS.17** Light ** $26.95**

**TOPS Module #18 - Sound**

Move a pencil back and forth while smoothly pulling a piece of paper under the oscillating
point. This generates a train of waves across your paper with measurable amplitudes and
wave lengths. Time the frequency of these vibrations to determine wave speed. Masking tape
that is stuck to a vibrating tuning fork and swept across greased glass makes a similar
wave train. Relationships between intensity and amplitude, pitch and frequency, follow as
naturally as listening. Your students will generate both longitudinal and transverse waves
by cutting an index card "slinky". They’ll study resonance and beats, even
build a musical instrument. Book of 20 lessons for grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.18** Sound **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #19 - Electricity**

This book begins with task cards that investigate the nature of like and unlike charges,
establishing the reason why current flows through wire. Students then improvise bulb and
battery holders and build a variety of different switches. They’ll then configure
them in parallel and series arrangements, using Ohm’s Law to predict how the current
will flow. Your class will construct all manner of wonderful inventions: galvanometers,
variable resistors, fuses, electroscopes, wet cells, storage cells, ammeters and more.
They’ll even split water and recombine the gasses in a safe mini-explosion. Book of
36 lessons, gr. 8 to 12*.

**TOPS.19** Electricity **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #20 - Magnetism**

Magnets are fascinating. They provoke our curiosity. By touching one to a straight pin,
you create an instant compass. Use it to map magnetic fields around a small magnet or a
whole planet. What else can you do with this pin? Remagnetize it, chop it into pieces,
heat the attracting fragments in a candle flame. These experiments reveal much about the
nature of magnetic domains. Add coiled wire and dry cell batteries to your inexpensive
"refrigerator" magnets to create a surprising array of wonderful inventions:
electromagnets, solenoids, telegraphs, buzzers, motors, generators and relay switches. *Magnetism*
is great science and great fun. Book of 28 lessons for grades 8 to 12*.

**TOPS.20** Magnetism **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #21 - Motion**

In this unit your students will observe, analyze and graph all kinds of motion: the
acceleration of marbles down an incline; the herky-jerky motion of classmates doing the
heel-toe shuffle; collisions of marbles with equal and unequal masses; paper clips
orbiting on string; floor tappers in free fall; jet straws, catapults and much more.
Thanks to Newton, all these varied motions can be understood in terms of the same basic
laws. His ideas about mass, inertia, balanced and unbalanced forces, acceleration, action
and reaction, all make good sense. Students grasp the abstract because they have
experienced the concrete. Book of 36 lessons for grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.21** Motion **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #22 - Machines**

Your students will construct levers from a metre stick and a rubber stopper; pulleys from
paper clips and thread; inclined planes from pieces of cardboard. They will use spring
scales to weigh loads, measure effort, and thereby calculate efficiency. (Scales with a 2
N capacity, 200 g, work best.) In each case they will find machines save effort but never
reduce work. They’ll build a wheel and axle machine, examine gear ratios, even
calculate the horsepower generated in climbing a flight of stairs. Imagine the smallest
kid in your class winning a pulley tug-of-war against the strongest. Machines is great fun
that your students will not easily forget. Book of 16 lessons, grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.22** Machines **$18.95**

**TOPS Module #23
**Rocks & Minerals You don’t need exotic rocks and expensive minerals to teach

** **

**TOPS Modules SET "B":**

(suitable __mostly__ for elementary to middle
school)

Modules #31 to #45 use structured, illustrated activity pages. *Note:
Grade levels indicated are provided *as guides or suggestions only*. Your students
may find the activities easier or harder, depending on their previous experience.

**TOPS Module #31 - Balancing**

Never has a sheet of paper been used with such creativity! By folding and cutting a
premarked activity sheet, your students can make math balances that provide hours of
learning enjoyment. They add weight to the beam simply by hanging paper clips from the
prenumbered tabs. In a similar manner, by suspending folded index cards from the end of
another folded beam, your students can construct their own equal-arm balances. Imagine the
enthusiasm as each student interacts with his or her own instrument: Do 12 rice grains
weigh more than 3 popcorn? How many paper clips does a penny weigh? Book of 20 lessons for
grades 3 to 7*.

**TOPS.31** Balancing **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #32 - Electricity**

Circuits are fun to build. But poor contact points or loose connections can often make it
a frustrating experience, especially for younger students. Not to worry! Using no more
than paper clips, rubber bands, clothespins and pennies, your students will build bulb
holders, battery holders and switches that are virtually goof-proof. Gone is the tangle of
copper wire that must be twisted and untwisted. It is replaced by flexible, tangle-proof
ribbon - aluminum foil backed by masking tape. Because they are flat, these ribbons can be
joined into electrically secure connections with paper clips. Simple, inexpensive, easy to
do - you and your class will love *Electricity*. Book of 20 lessons for grades 3 to
8*.

**TOPS.32** Electricity **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #33 - Magnetism**

This unit uses small rectangular ceramic magnets about the size of postage stamps (size
not critical). You may have them at home, holding messages to your refrigerator door, or
you can purchase them from * Science Is....* Your students will put these to
very good use. With a thread and pin they will map a magnetic field. With masking tape and
paper clips they will graph how the strength of the magnet changes with distance.
Compasses, electromagnets, telegraphs, buzzers and motors - Magnetism is filled with
wonderful inventions that run on simple materials. So incredibly little teaches so much!
Book of 20 lessons, gr. 3 to 8*.

**TOPS Module #34 - Pendulums**

Activity sheets in this book run on little more than thread, paper clips, pennies and
masking tape. Now you can teach science on *less* than a shoestring and your students
will love it: they’ll time pendulums, count cycles, measure lengths, graph data,
predict frequency, calculate ratios and even discover the square root of two. Couple
pendulums with a rubber band and watch the energy flow between them. Join four pendulums
with a raft of heavy books and watch the complex harmonic motion draw a seashell pattern.
It’s science, math and art. It’s all in *Pendulums*. It’s all so
simple. Book of 20 lessons for grades 4 to 9*.

**TOPS.34** Pendulums **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #35 - Metric Measuring**

All metric units - metres, litres and grams - are tied to the same physical reference: a
water cube that measures 1 cm on each side. We want your students to appreciate this
elegant simplicity. So TOPS has developed a parallel measuring system based on sugar
cubes. (Purchase cube shapes, not bricks, equivalent to 1 teaspoon.) Your students will
use them to develop a concrete understanding of length, area, volume and mass. Ten lessons
later they will substitute the idea of water cubes and slip painlessly into metrics.
Metres, litres and grams all become old friends as your students make rulers, calibrate
measuring cups and improvise gram balances. Book of 20 lessons for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.35** Metric Measuring **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #36 - More Metrics**

How much is a hectolitre? Who cares? This book teaches only those metric units that are
important. - metres, grams and litres - plus 6 useful derivatives. Learn these by cutting
and sorting the TOPS Metric Squares. Match triplets: one millimetre = thin as a dime = .1
cm. Score Metric Rummy! Our activities and games reinforce metric relationships naturally,
without drudgery. Then we teach how to measure. No rounding off in these activity sheets.
Your students will learn to measure accurately, estimating the last digits like real
scientists. They’ll weigh water drops and seeds on improvised microbalances,
sensitive to just 1 milligram! Book of 20 lessons for grades 6 to 10*.

**TOPS.36** More Metrics **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #37 - Animal Survival**

How to survive? Do you hop, crawl, swim, fly? Will you claw and chew your way through
life, or hide and blend in? Do you carry heavy armour, sport quills, sting or just smell
bad? *Animal Survival* is a wonderful blend of science, art and imagination. Make a
tiny tempera paint kit improvised from aluminum foil. Finger paint a desert-scape, then
create a lizard to blend right in. Camouflage paper moths so perfectly that not even big
bird (the school principal) can see them. Create a cornflake to mimic the real thing. This
module helps every student enjoy and appreciate the wit and wonder of nature. Book of 20
lessons, for grades 3-8*.

**TOPS.37** Animal Survival **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #38 - Green Thumbs: Radishes**

Radishes aren't fussy. Provide them with a warm, moist environment (a wet paper towel in
an egg carton works just fine) and away they grow. In just a day the seeds will sprout. By
the end of the week you'll get plants that are as tall as 5 cm. Because radishes grow so
fast, tropisms are easy to observe. See how the roots grow toward water; how the leaves
tilt toward light; how the stems bend against gravity. Graph growth rates on a sigma
curve. Eat a salad direct from the sun. Radishes are a great hands-on introduction to
plants and how they grow. Book of 20 lessons for grades 3-8*.

**TOPS.38** Green Thumbs: Radishes **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #39 - Green Thumbs: Corn & Beans**

This module blends science, math, language and art into a single grand learning
experience. There is much to observe, to calculate, to write and to draw. Your students
will grow popcorn and pinto beans, then track plant development in their personal daily
journals. Over 5 weeks your class construct their own lab equipment, compile a complete
written and visual record of growth; graph daily height and weight gains; study how leaves
photosynthesize; examine the role of cotyledons in plant development; learn to distinguish
monocots from dicots in flowering plants, and much more. 20 lessons for grades 4 to 12*.

**TOPS.39** Green Thumbs: Corn/Beans **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #40 - Earth, Sun & Moon**

This book explores our heavenly neighbours in a most remarkable way. Your students will
construct floating-pin compasses and paper clip quadrants, then use them to track the sun
and moon across a graph paper sky. They’ll cover a beat-up tennis ball in a beautiful
earth wrapper complete with continents, oceans and lines of demarcation. They’ll
mount this earth on a pop bottle pedestal, properly tilted toward a tennis ball sun. Add a
ping pong ball moon, half wrapped in black tape to model its phases, and this TOPS
learning system is complete: night follows day; the moon waxes and wanes through its
monthly cycle; season follows season; year follows year. Book of 20 lessons for grades 7
to 12*.

**TOPS.40** Earth, Moon & Sun **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #41 - Planets & Stars**

TOPS accomplishes a near miracle - the study of our night sky in the daytime classroom.
Fashioning clever astronomical models from straws and cereal boxes, your students will
accurately track the sun and stars across the classroom ceiling. They'll watch
constellations rise and set on a water horizon in a baby-food jar. They'll pace off
astonishing distances between our "tennis ball" sun and its "pepper and
pebble" planets. They’ll map the Big Dipper with pinheads in 3-dimensional space
and model the Milky Way in wisps of cotton. A logarithmic time line holds all models in
perspective, stretching young minds (and your own) to the limits of the universe. Book of
20 lessons for grades 7 to 12*.

**TOPS.41** Planets & Stars **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #42 - Focus Pocus**

The title of this book sounds like magic. Just gather simple materials, sprinkle with
water and shout "Focus Pocus!" You’ll get a canning-ring projector, a
washer-lens reducer, a beverage-bottle magnifier and microscope, and a soda-straw
superscope. Keep stirring with hand lenses (available from * Science Is...*)
and you’ll brew up a lens platform that traces the bent path of refracting light
rays, and a working mechanical eye. A metre-stick protractor connects these marvelous
learning systems to solid math as your students measure angular size, graph visual acuity,
and explore the inverse relationship between distance and apparent size. Book of 20
lessons for grades 5 to 10*.

**TOPS Module #43 - Far Out Math**

This is the first of three books TOPS has produced for NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space
Telescope (formerly GLAST: Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope), launched in 2008. The
Activity Sheet lessons in this program launch algebra students (grades 9-12) into a study
of logarithms. Why logarithms? Logs help astronomers gather vast ranges of astronomical
data, collected by instruments like GLAST/Fermi, and interpret the results in meaningful
ways. Those of us over 50 probably used log tables in high school to multiply and divide
big numbers. If we studied physics, we also learned to use slide rules. Today digital
calculators allow us to calculate with greater convenience, but often at the expense of
understanding. Slide rules are still important in helping us understand (and remember in
concrete, memorable ways), that logs are simply exponents: we add them to multiply and
subtract them to divide. In this module students will build ingenious slide rules
from folded paper. They'll solve exponential equations by applying base-ten and base-two
logarithms, and transform higher order equations into straight lines on log-log graphs.
Along the way, they'll learn intriguing bits of astronomical lore. Book of 14
lessons for grades 9 to 12*.

**TOPS.43** Far Out Math **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #44 - Scale The Universe**

This, the second book TOPS has produced for NASA, is versatile and beautifully integrated,
helping your students understand their place in the world. Give kids in grades 5-12
original, hands-on experiences with orders of magnitude and unit analysis. They can take a
hike along an imaginary LongTape to get a feel for logarithmic measurement: they can order
tabs representing the astonishing scope of distance and time, then arrange these on a log
scale. As a magnificent finale, each student constructs a Book of Scale and explores,
through the awesome Power of 10, the relative size of things big and small, from protons
to the limits of our visible universe, from gamma ray periods to the lifespans of stars.
We are in between: our bodies measured in metres, our respiration in seconds. Beginning
with what we know, we reach both ways toward infinity, measuring, ordering, plotting,
converting, scaling, and drawing everything imaginable in clever Books of Scale that frame
both space and time. Discover wonderful enrichment activities for biology and math
students. This wonderful new book will get even the artists and poets in your classes
applying their skills and doing fabulous science. We predict that this program will knock
your socks off and stir your students' sense of wonder and curiosity! Book of 9 lessons
for grades 5 to 12*.

**TOPS.44** Scale The Universe **$26.95**

**TOPS Module #45 - Pi in the Sky**

This is our third book in the TOPS NASA series, and the most flexible yet. Arranged as a
"smorgasbord" of six "buffet tables," each table is arrayed with a
variety of creative science and math labs and supplemental tools. If you've ever wanted to
scrap one-size-fits-all lessons to meet individual needs, here's your chance to experience
student-directed flexibility. Or you can choose to pre-select labs in a more traditional
mode. Either way, these activities speak directly to students, with you presenting our
targeted demonstrations and background information, providing simple materials, and acting
as a resource person. Watch students discover for themselves how astronomers determine the
size and distance of heavenly objects. Begin with a creative review of pi (a superb math
unit on its own!), then go on to investigate angular size relationships, test visual
acuity, construct and use an ancient navigational instrument, study parallax, and more! Pi
in the Sky is a stellar publication, overflowing with extraordinary math and science, all
using ordinary, cheap materials. Your students use their hands, bodies and minds to grasp
elusive mathematical concepts in practical, concrete ways. Book of 37 student labs for
grades 5 to 12*.

**TOPS.45** Pi in the Sky **$26.95**

**TOPS Special Offer # 1**

Order the collection of SET "A" TOPS units as listed above (mostly for middle
school and high school), and __ save over $63.00__. It’s like getting 2 or 3
units for free! All 23 units of SET "A" (#01 to #23):

**TOPS Special Offer # 2**

Order the collection of SET "B" TOPS units as listed above (mostly for
elementary to middle school), and __ save over $54.00__. It’s like getting 2
units for free! All 15 units of SET "B" (#31 to #45):

**TOPS Super Special Offer**

Order the entire collection of SET "A" *and* SET "B" TOPS units
as listed above, and __ save $143.00__ over individual prices. All 38 TOPS
Modules available at time of printing (#01 to #23 inclusive, plus #31 to #45 inclusive):

*Note: Grade levels indicated are
provided *as guides or suggestions only*. Your students may find the activities
easier or harder, depending on their previous experience.

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